# Math – More Formula Layouts

## Adding limits to a sum or an integral.

In Math, the ‘sum’ and ‘int’ commands are used for sum and limits respectively. These commands can take the parameters ‘from’ and ‘to’. These are used for lower and upper limits respectively. These parameters can be used singly or together. The usage of these commands and parameters has been shown in the below given illustrations.

## Writing a derivative

Writing derivatives in Math is very simple. We simply need to use a fraction.

In other words, we need to use the ‘over’ command. Combine this with either the letter d (for a total derivative) or the ‘partial’ command (for a partial derivative) to achieve the effect of a derivative.

The examples have been shown below.

## Markup characters as regular characters.

In LibreOffice Math, the characters that are used for controlling the markup codes cannot be entered directly as normal characters. These characters are: ‘%’, ‘{’, ‘}’, ‘&’, ‘|’, ‘_’, ‘^’ and ‘”’. So, for example, we cannot write ‘2% = 0.02’ or ‘1″ = 2.56cm’. Two methods can be used to solve this problem:

- Using double quotes to mark the character as text, for example ‘2″%”= 0.02’. Obviously this is not possible for the double-quote character itself.
- Adding the character to the catalog. This will be discussed in detail in the later chapters.

## Text in a formula.

To include text in a formula, enclose the text in straight double-quotes. All characters except double quotes are permissible in text. Unfortunately the special characters dialog is not available in Math. If necessary, we can write the text in a text document and copy it into the equation editor via the clipboard. In this way, special characters can also be inserted.